Senator Anne Clare Cools is an Ontario Senator representing Toronto-Centre-York. She was summoned to the Senate in January 1984 by His Excellency Governor General Edward Schreyer on the recommendation of the Rt. Hon. Pierre Trudeau. She is the first black person appointed to the Senate of Canada and is the first black female senator in North America. Born August 12, 1943 in Barbados, British West Indies, and grew up in a household that valued education and political service. At the age of thirteen she move at to Montreal with her family. Senator Cools was educated at Queen’s College Girls School, Barbados; Thomas D’Arcy McGee High School, Montreal; and Montreal’s McGill University, from which she holds a Bachelor of Arts. In the 1979 and 1980 federal general elections, Anne Cools was a candidate with Trudeau’s Liberals in Toronto’s Rosedale riding. In June 2004, after 20 years as a Liberal Senator, she joined the Conservatives for a short time. Currently, Senator Cools sits as an Independent Senator, she has no party affiliation. Senator Cools is deeply committed to the constitutional system of responsible government. She is a student of history and parliament, a diligent reader and known for her focused approach to the study of legislation and parliament. Prior to the Senate, Senator Cools was a social worker in innovative social services in Toronto. In 1974, as a pioneer in domestic and family violence, she founded one of Canada’s first women’s shelters, Women in Transition Inc., serving as its Executive Director. She assisted with the establishment of several other women’s shelters in Ontario. She co-organized Canada’s first domestic violence conference, Couples in Conflict. She presents the evidence that men and women are equally capable of good and bad, and that violence and aggression are not gendered characteristics, but are human ones, and often are a pathology of intimacy.